What is Nicotinamide Riboside? Its Advantages, Limitations, and Precautions

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What is Nicotinamide Riboside? Its Advantages, Limitations, and Precautions

Nicotinamide riboside, like niacin and niacinamide, is a member of the vitamin B3 family. Fruits, vegetables, meat, and milk all contain it.

The body converts nicotinamide riboside to NAD+. NAD+ is required for the regular functioning of numerous bodily systems. Low amounts might have negative consequences for one’s health.

Low NAD+ levels can be helped by taking nicotinamide riboside.

What is Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide NAD?

The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a coenzyme present in every living cell. It transforms what we consume into all we do. Cells require energy.

NAD+ is a nutrient that aids in the energy production of cells. The more NAD+ available, the more cells are needed, and the better the cells can function.

NAD+ supplements give your body the building blocks it needs to generate the dinucleotide nicotinamide adenine or NAD. Because it is usually found as a positive ion, NAD is frequently referred to as NAD+.

What is Nicotinamide Riboside?

what is nicotinamide riboside its advantages, limitations, precautions

Niagen (Nicotinamide Riboside) is a vitamin B3 that is not recognized as Niacin. Like other types of vitamin B3, Nicotinamide riboside is converted by the body into a coenzyme or a helper molecule (NAD+).

NAD+ serves as a source of energy for several critical cellular functions. Converting food into energy, mending damaged DNA, increasing cell defense systems, and regulating your body’s internal clock, or circadian rhythm, are just a few examples.

Structure and Chemistry of Nicotinamide Riboside

N-ribosylnicotinamide is a pyridine nucleoside formed from nicotinamide and a beta-D-ribofuranosyl moiety at the 1-position. It functions as a human metabolite, a metabolite of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mice, and a geroprotector. It is a pyridine nucleoside and an N-glycosylnicotinamide.

Its preferred IUPAC name is 3-Carbamoyl-1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]pyridin-1-ium. While nicotinamide riboside has a molecular weight of 255.25 g/mol, its chloride salt has a molecular weight of 290.70 g/mol.

 As a result, 100 mg nicotinamide riboside chloride converts to 88 mg nicotinamide riboside. The crystal structure of a novel family of crystalline forms of additional nicotinamide riboside salts was recently found.

 These salts have molecular weights of 404.33 and 388.33 g/mol, respectively, and correspond to distinct enantiomers of hydrogen tartrate and hydrogen malate.

Nicotinamide riboside.png

Source: Pubchem

What are the Food Sources of Nicotinamide Riboside?

Niacin is present in meat, chicken, fish, nuts, and legumes, among other foods. Breakfast cereals, for example, maybe enriched with Niacin and other vitamins.

Because Niacin is water-soluble, it is not stored in the body. This also means that if your body does not require the vitamin, it can excrete it through urine.

Your body obtains Niacin from food, but it also synthesizes a tiny amount from the amino acid tryptophan, present in protein sources such as turkey and other animal foods.

Some energy drinks also specify B vitamin dosages, which can be relatively high. Here are some popular niacin-rich foods, along with the percentage of the Daily Value (DV) they give.

  • Grilled chicken breast, 3 ounces: 64% of the DV
  • Roasted turkey breast, 3 ounces: 63% of the DV
  • Cooked brown rice, 1 cup: 33% of the DV
  • Dry roasted peanuts, 1 ounce: 26% of the DV
  • Medium baked potato: 14% of the DV

What are the Impacts of Lack of Nicotinamide Riboside?

The amount of NAD+ in your body diminishes as you become older. Low NAD+ levels have been linked to aging and chronic illnesses such as diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and vision loss. Interestingly, animal studies have indicated that raising NAD+ levels might help reverse aging signs.

Nicotinamide riboside supplements, such as Niagen, are prominent because they appear to raise NAD+ levels significantly. Cow’s milk, yeast, and beer contain trace amounts of nicotinamide riboside.

To summarise, Niagen is a kind of vitamin B3. It is marketed as an anti-aging supplement because it raises NAD+ levels in the body, fueling many critical biological operations.

What are the Benefits of Nicotinamide Riboside?

Niacin or vitamin B3 owes Nicotinamide Riboside as an essential nutrient. It is required for every aspect of your body to work effectively.

Niacin, as a supplement, may help decrease cholesterol, alleviate arthritis, and improve cognitive function, among other things. However, if used in significant dosages, it might have significant adverse effects.

Niacin’s primary function in your body is to synthesize the coenzymes, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).

These are involved in over 400 biochemical reactions in your body. The majority of these reactions are related to obtaining energy from the food you eat.

In addition, it plays a role in cell signaling and creating and repairing DNA to act as an antioxidant.

Does Nicotinamide Riboside Reduce the Risk of Heart Disease?

Heart disease is the world’s most significant cause of mortality, and aging is a crucial risk factor. It can cause blood vessels, such as the aorta to thicken, stiffen, and become less flexible. These changes might cause your blood pressure to rise and your heart to work harder.

In a research study raising NAD+ levels in mice aided in reversing age-related artery abnormalities. In persons at risk of high blood pressure, nicotinamide riboside increased NAD+ levels, reduced aortic stiffness, and systolic blood pressure.

However, further human study is required.

Is Nicotinamide Riboside Helpful in Reduction of Fat in the Blood?

Niacin may aid in the reduction of fat blood levels by Increasing the amount of HDL (good) cholesterol in your body. It also helps lower your LDL cholesterol (bad) and decrease triglyceride levels.

Although multiple studies have revealed no relationship between niacin supplementation and a reduction in heart disease risk or fatalities, this might lead to a decrease in heart disease risk.

To achieve blood fat level improvements, substantial dosages of Niacin are required, often 1,500 mg or more, which raises the risk of unpleasant or potentially severe side effects.

As a result, Niacin is not recommended as first-line therapy for high cholesterol. It’s mainly used to help those who can’t take statin medicines improve their blood fat levels.

How is Niacinamide Riboside Helpful in Certain Skin Conditions?

Niacinamide Riboside is essential in maintaining the health of the skin. As a result, it’s a popular ingredient in cosmetics and skincare products.

Niacinamide has anti-inflammatory impacts on the skin, either applied topically or used as a supplement product.

It’s been used to treat skin problems like acne and rosacea, a redness-related face skin ailment.

As a result, niacinamide is a preferred alternative to oral or topical antibiotics for acne and rosacea treatment.

How Nicotinamide Slows Down the Aging Process?

Nicotinamide riboside is a nutrient that aids in raising NAD+ levels in the body. As a result, NAD+ stimulates enzymes that may aid in healthy aging. It activates enzymes that could help you live a longer, healthier life.

Sirtuins, for example, appear to extend the animal’s lifetime and enhance general health. According to research, sirtuins may repair damaged DNA, improve stress tolerance, decrease inflammation, and provide other advantages that support healthy aging.

Sirtuins are also responsible for calorie restriction’s lifespan-extending effects. Poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are another category of enzymes that repair damaged DNA. In some studies, higher PARP activity has reduced DNA damage and a longer lifespan.

Is Niacin Helpful in Treating Melanoma?

It is skin cancer in the cells that make melanin, which gives your skin its color.

UV light from the sun or tanning beds breaks your cells’ DNA over time and is closely linked to Melanoma. Oral supplements of niacinamide have been found to improve DNA repair in UV-damaged skin in humans due to its function in cell health.

As a result, niacinamide is a potent supplement that may protect against Melanoma, particularly in high-risk groups like individuals who have previously had nonmelanoma skin cancer.

Does Nicotinamide Riboside Assist in the Protection of Brain Stem Cells?

NAD+ is a nutrient that aids in the healthy aging of your brain cells. NAD+ regulates the formation of PGC-1-alpha in brain cells, a protein that appears to protect cells from oxidative stress and decreased mitochondrial activity.

According to researchers, oxidative stress and poor mitochondrial activity are connected to age-related brain illnesses, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.

Nicotinamide riboside increased brain NAD+ levels and PGC-1-alpha synthesis by up to 70% and 50% in Alzheimer’s disease mice, respectively. The mice performed much better in memory-based activities towards the conclusion of the trial.

In a test tube research, nicotinamide riboside increased NAD+ levels and enhanced mitochondrial activity in stem cells from a Parkinson’s disease patient.

However, it’s still unclear if increasing NAD+ levels in persons with age-related brain problems are beneficial. More human research is required.

Is Niacin Useful in the Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease?

Chronic renal disease is characterized by a gradual decrease of kidney function that impairs your body’s capacity to clean and filter blood as well as manage blood pressure.

This can result in a hazardous accumulation of substances in your blood, such as phosphate. Niacinamide may help reduce phosphate levels in persons with renal disease by inhibiting its absorption.

According to research, phosphorus levels are usually regulated by diet, medicines, or dialysis, depending on the degree of the accumulation.

Is Niacin Helpful in the Treatment of Type 1Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune illness in which your body attacks and kills the cells in your pancreas that produce insulin.

According to some studies, Niagin may help preserve those cells and reduce the likelihood of type 1 diabetes in infants with a higher risk of acquiring the disease.

The role of Niacin in persons with type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is more nuanced.

According to some research studies, it can aid in the reduction of elevated cholesterol levels, which are common in patients with type 2 diabetes.

On the other hand, it has the potential to raise blood sugar levels. As a result, people with diabetes who use Niacin to treat excessive cholesterol must also watch blood sugar levels.

Thankfully, a recent review of research indicated that Niacin had no substantial detrimental impact on blood sugar control in people with type 2 diabetes.

Is Nicotinamide Effective in Treating Osteoarthritis?

In the treatment of Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, niacinamide is frequently used. “It demonstrably increases joint mobility, muscular strength and lowers fatigability,” writes Dr. William Kaufman.

He has been researching the use of niacinamide in the treatment of arthritis since the 1950s. It improves maximum muscular functioning capacity and decreases or eliminates arthritic joint discomfort.”

According to another research, niacinamide may be helpful in the treatment of Osteoarthritis. When compared to placebo, niacinamide improved the overall impact of Osteoarthritis, improved joint flexibility, decreased inflammation, and allowed for a reduction in typical anti-inflammatory drugs.

More research on the effects of niacinamide on arthritis is needed.

What are the Side Effects and Risks Associated with Nicotinamide Riboside?

Nicotinamide riboside is most likely safe and has few side effects. Taking 1,000–2,000 mg per day exhibited no adverse effects in human tests.

On the other hand, most human studies are brief and contain few participants. More comprehensive human investigations are required to provide a more precise picture of its safety.

Some users have complained about mild to moderate adverse effects such as nausea, tiredness, headaches, diarrhea, stomach discomfort, and indigestion.

Taking 300 mg per kg of body weight (136 mg per pound) daily for 90 days exhibited no adverse effects in animals.

Furthermore, nicotinamide riboside, unlike vitamin B3 (Niacin) supplements, should not produce face flushing.

What is the Suggested Dosage of Nicotinamide Riboside?

Nicotinamide riboside, often known as niagen, is available as a pill or capsule. It is available at certain health food stores, Amazon, and other online merchants.

Niagen supplements typically include only nicotinamide riboside, but some producers mix it with additional substances such as Pterostilbene, a polyphenol — an antioxidant structurally related to resveratrol.

Most niagen supplement companies recommend taking 250–300 mg per day, which equates to 1–2 capsules per day, depending on the brand.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

How Does NAD Riboside Help in the Treatment of Cancer?

High levels of NAD+ protect against DNA damage and oxidative stress, both of which have been associated with cancer development.

For Arthritis, How Much Niacin Should I Take?

Adults should consume 14-16 mg of Niacin per day, easily obtained by eating a well-balanced diet.

Is it Preferable to Take Niagin in the Morning or the Evening?

In general, take the immediate-release type of Niagin after your evening meal and the extended-release form after a low-fat snack before night. If you take it first thing in the morning or on an empty stomach, you may suffer additional adverse effects, including flushing and stomach distress.

Is it Possible for NAD Riboside to Harm Your Liver?

NAD Riboside can produce mild-to-moderate serum aminotransferase increases. Large dosages of riboside and specific niacin formulations have been related to clinically apparent acute liver impairment that can be deadly.

Is NAD Identical to Vitamin B3?

Nicotinamide riboside, generally known as Niacin, is an alternate form of vitamin B3. Like other types of vitamin B3, Nicotinamide riboside is metabolized by the body into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme or helper molecule.

Conclusion

Nicotinamide Riboside is a chemical compound of great importance. Niacinamide is a kind of vitamin B3 (Niacin), which helps with energy metabolism and cell health. It may provide skincare and skin-cancer-prevention advantages and benefits for chronic renal disease and type 1 diabetes.

Niacinamide is usually regarded safe at recommended levels, with minimal adverse effects. It’s a frequent element in skin care products and is available as a nutritional supplement. It is essential to use it in prescribed doses and not exceed the daily intake limit to avoid side effects.

However, before attempting to take niacinamide, you should speak with your doctor. Furthermore, most research on nicotinamide riboside and NAD+ is conducted in animals. More high-quality human trials are needed before it may be recommended as a therapy.

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